ABSTRACT [DK]

Rasmus Skovgaard Jakobsen og Søren Broberg Knudsen
De ædles almisser Ret og pligt på fynske godshospitaler i første halvdel af 1700-tallet

Artiklen undersøger det store antal godshospitaler, som fandtes på Fyn i 1700-tallet. Undersøgelsen viser, at alle fynske landhospitaler var underlagt og blev vedligeholdt af en godsejer. Dermed udgjorde godserne en central ramme i den landbasserede fattighjælp i 1700-tallet. En ramme som forskningen i emnet ofte har overset, da man hidtil har begrænset sig til et nationalt lovgivnings- eller hovedstadsperspektiv. I artiklen viser vi, at baggrunden for godsejernes hjælp til de fattige på godserne ikke blot stammede fra en økonomisk eller forvaltningsmæssig tænkning, men at godsejernes rolle som luthersk øvrighed var en central baggrund i de mange hospitalsfundatser. At tage vare på sine underordnede var i et luthersk perspektiv en kristen forpligtelse, som i sidste ende kunne påvirke den enkelte godsejers forhold til selveste Gud. Godsejerne havde dermed magt over deres underordnede, men havde samtidig også en religiøs pligt til at tage vare på godsets beboere. I det perspektiv besad godsejerne ikke kun rettigheder som magthavere over godsets beboere – sådan som tidligere forskning har betonet – men også forpligtigelser og gensidighed som legitime kristne øvrigheder.


ABSTRACT [UK]

Rasmus Skovgaard Jakobsen og Søren Broberg Knudsen
The Alms of the Noble. The Nobility, Rights, Duties and Poorhouses on Funen in the First Half of the 18th Century

The article examines the large number of poorhouses on Funen manor estates in the first half of the 18th century. The study shows that all poorhouses were funded and maintained by estate owners, making the estates central to the land-based poverty relief in the 18th century. Previous research on the subject has been limited to a national legislative or Copenhagen-centered perspective, but in the article we show that it is also possible to study the rural relief system. This system was dominated by the estate owners and their responsibility towards the poor living in the villages belonging to the estates. By examining the founding charters of the poorhouses, it is clear that poor relief was a central framework in the landowners’ role as legitimate Lutheran authorities. Taking care of one’s subordinates was, in a Lutheran perspective, a Christian obligation that ultimately affected the individual estate owner’s relationship with God. Thus, the owners had power over their subordinates, but at the same time a duty to take care of the estate’s residents. In that perspective, the estate owners possessed not only rights as rulers – as previous research has emphasized – but also obligations and reciprocity as legitimate Christian authorities.